Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium is five conditions needed for a population to stay in equilibrium that was found by Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg.

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Although real populations rarely meet all five conditions, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is still a very important concept because:
- Biologists can compare real data to data predicted by the model.
- They can learn more about how the population is evolving.
- The model gives a framework for testing the factors that can lead to evolution.